The Irish Confederates were now much more amenable to compromise, as had seen a series of military disasters for them at the hands of English Parliamentarian forces. On 17 January Ormonde concluded a peace with the rebels on the basis of the free exercise of their religion. Ormonde was placed in command of the Irish Confederates' armies and also English Royalist troops who were landed in Ireland from France.
However, despite controlling almost all of Ireland before August , Ormonde was unable to prevent the conquest of Ireland by Cromwell in Ormonde tried to re-take Dublin by laying siege to the city in the summer of , but was routed at the Battle of Rathmines. Subsequently, he tried to halt Cromwell by holding a line of fortified towns across the country.
Ormonde lost most of the English and Protestant Royalist troops under his command when they mutinied, and went over to Cromwell in May This left him with only the Irish Catholic forces, who distrusted him greatly. Ormonde was ousted from his command in late and he returned to France in December A synod held in at the Augustinian abbey in Jamestown, County Leitrim , repudiated the Duke and excommunicated his followers.
In Cromwell's Act of Settlement , all of Ormonde's lands in Ireland were confiscated and he was excepted from the pardon given to those Royalists who had surrendered by that date.
Ormonde, though desperately short of money, was in constant attendance on Charles II and the Queen Mother in Paris, and accompanied the former to Aix and Cologne when expelled from France by the terms of Mazarin 's treaty with Cromwell in In April Ormonde was one of two signatories who agreed the Treaty of Brussels , securing an alliance for the Royalists with the Spanish court. He attended the king at Fuenterrabia in , and had an interview with Mazarin and was actively engaged in the secret transactions immediately preceding the Restoration.
See also Act of Settlement On 4 November , he once more received the lord lieutenancy of Ireland, and busily engaged in the work of settling that country.
The main problem was the land question, and the Act of Explanation was passed through the Irish parliament by Ormonde, on 23 December His heart was in his government, and he vehemently opposed the Importation Act prohibiting the importation of Irish cattle, which struck so fatal a blow at Irish trade; and retaliated by prohibiting the import into Ireland of Scottish commodities, and obtained leave to trade with foreign countries.
He encouraged Irish manufactures and learning to the utmost, and it was to his efforts that the Irish College of Physicians owes its incorporation. He had great influence over the appointment of judges: while he naturally wished to appoint to the Bench men of legal ability, a record of loyalty to the Crown was also generally required. It is interesting that he was prepared to appoint judges of Gaelic descent, like James Donnellan , and even some who were known to have Roman Catholic leanings. He was criticised for favouring old friends like John Bysse who were considered too infirm to be effective, but this also shows one of his main virtues, loyalty: as Elrington Ball remarks, those whom Ormonde had ever loved, he loved to the end.
In general the judges followed his example and, by the standards of the age, were merciful enough. Ormonde's personality had always been a striking one, and he was highly regarded.
He was dignified and proud of his loyalty, even when he lost royal favour, declaring, "However ill I may stand at court I am resolved to lye well in the chronicle". Buckingham especially did his utmost to undermine his influence. Ormonde's almost irresponsible government of Ireland during troubled times was open to criticism. He had billeted soldiers on civilians, and had executed martial law. He was threatened by Buckingham with impeachment.
In March , Ormonde was removed from the government of Ireland and from the committee for Irish affairs. He made no complaint, insisted that his sons and others over whom he had influence should retain their posts, and continued to fulfil the duties of his other offices, while his character and services were recognized in his election as Chancellor of the University of Oxford on 4 August In , an extraordinary attempt was made to assassinate the duke by a ruffian and adventurer named Thomas Blood , already notorious for an unsuccessful plot to surprise Dublin Castle in , and later for stealing the royal crown from the Tower.
Ormonde was attacked by Blood and his accomplices while driving up St James's Street on the night of 6 December , dragged out of his coach, and taken on horseback along Piccadilly with the intention of hanging him at Tyburn. Ormonde, however, succeeded in overcoming the horseman to whom he was bound, and escaped. The outrage, it was suspected, had been instigated by Buckingham, who was openly accused of the crime by Lord Ossory, Ormonde's son, in the king's presence, and threatened by him with instant death if any violence should happen to his father.
These suspicions were encouraged by the improper action of the king in pardoning Blood, and in admitting him to his presence and treating him with favour after his apprehension while endeavouring to steal the crown jewels.
In his estates in Carrick-on-Suir in County Tipperary , he was responsible for establishing the woollen industry in the town in In , he again visited Ireland, returned to London in to give advice to Charles on affairs in parliament, and in was again restored to favour and reappointed to the lord lieutenancy.
On his arrival in Ireland he occupied himself in placing the revenue and the army upon a proper footing. Upon the outbreak of the disturbances caused by the Popish Plot in England, Ormonde at once took steps towards rendering the Roman Catholics, who were in the proportion of 15 to 1, powerless; and the mildness and moderation of his measures served as the ground of an attack upon him in England led by Shaftesbury , from which he was defended with great spirit by his own son Lord Ossory.
In Charles summoned Ormonde to court. The same year he wrote "A Letter, from a Person of Honour in the Country, in answer to the earl of Anglesey, his Observations upon the earl of Castlehaven's Memoires concerning the Rebellion of Ireland", and gave Charles general support. On 29 November , an English dukedom was conferred upon him,   and in June he returned to Ireland; but he was recalled in October in consequence of fresh intrigues.
Ormonde also served as the sixth Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin between and , although he was in exile for the first fifteen years of his tenure. Subsequently, Ormonde lived in retirement at Cornbury in Oxfordshire , a house lent to him by Lord Clarendon , but emerged in to offer opposition at the board of the Charterhouse to James's attempt to assume the dispensing power and force upon the institution a Roman Catholic candidate without taking the oaths. Ormonde also refused the king his support in the question of the Indulgence ; James, to his credit, refused to take away his offices, and continued to hold him in respect and favour to the last.
FitzAnthony died in There is also a nationally important structure from the planning authority development plan under Schedule 1 of the Kilkenny City and environs Development Plan and is listed as being of national importance in the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage Survey of Kilkenny. Richard Butler of Kilcash — View Product. Statutory status Rothe House legal status is that it is listed as part of the urban area of Kilkenny City in the Record of Monuments and Sites , is listed in an archaeological in Urban Archaeological Survey County Kilkenny. Contae Chill Chainnigh. Seller Inventory APC
Ormonde died on 21 July at Kingston Lacy, Dorset, not having, as he rejoiced to know, "outlived his intellectuals". The eldest of these, Thomas, Earl of Ossory — predeceased him, his eldest son that is to say James Butler's grandchild succeeded as 2nd Duke of Ormonde — The other two sons, Richard, created earl of Arran , and John, created earl of Gowran , both died without male issue, and the male descent of the 1st Duke becoming extinct in the person of Charles, 3rd Duke of Ormonde, the earldom subsequently reverted to the cadet descendants of Walter, 11th earl of Ormonde.
Politician and soldier. The richest and most powerful of the Anglo-Irish magnates of his day and at the same time a man of simple loyalties and the highest principles.
For his services as royalist leader in Ireland during the rebellion, he was at the Restoration made a Duke and Lord Steward of the Household. In he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant and was responsible for the Restoration settlement in Ireland. He fell victim to Buckingham's enmity in In a second term of duty as Lord-Lieutenant , he kept Ireland quiet during the turmoil of the Popish Plot. Contemporaries and historians agree in regarding him as one of the most admirable figures in 17th-century public life.
Bishop Gilbert Burnet says he was in every way fitted for a Court; of graceful appearance, a lively wit, a cheerful temper; a man of great expense, but decent even in his vices, for he always kept up the form of religion; too faithful not to give always good advices, but when bad ones were followed too complacent to be any great complainer.
He had gone through many transactions with more fidelity than success, and in the siege of Dublin miscarried as far as to lessen the opinion of his military conduct; but his constant attendance on his master, his easiness to him and great sufferings for him, raised him to be Lord Steward of the Household and Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. Depending upon your interest in the details of history and politics, the detail can be somewhat overwhelming. Ormond was an old Royalist who sacrificed much to the Stuart monarchy and was not always treated well by either Charles I or II.
He is noted during this time period for his exceptional moral character and ease of manner, two things that seemed quite missing from most men in the court of Charles II. Several of the volumes dedicate a great deal of time to his governmental dealings in Ireland and also his interactions and support of the Stuarts. He was a fast thinking and unflappable man who carried himself with dignity and with in his interactions. One of my favorite anecdotes takes place between Lady Castlemaine Charles. Lord Clarendon, in the Continuation of his Life, observes, that "he frankly engaged his person and his fortune in the king's service, from the first hour of the troubles, and pursued it with that courage and constancy, that when the king was murdered, and he deserted by the Irish, contrary to the articles of peace which they had made with him, and when he could make no longer defence, he refused all the conditions which Cromwell offered, who would have given him all his vast estate if he would have been contented to live quietly in some of his own houses, without further concerning himself in the quarrel; and transported himself, without so much as accepting a pass from his authority, in a little weak vessel into France, where he found the king, from whom he never parted till he returned with him into England.
Having thus merited as much as a subject can do from a prince, he had much more credit and esteem with the king than any other man. Bishop Burnet says of him, "he was a man every way fitted for a court; of a graceful appearance, a lively wit, and a cheerful temper; a man of great expense; decent even in his vices, for he always kept up the form of region.
He had gone through many transactions in Ireland with more fidelity than success. He had made a treaty with the Irish, which was broken by the great body of them, though some few of them adhered still to him. But the whole Irish nation did still pretend, that though they had broke the agreement first, yet he, or rather the king, in whose name he had treated with them, was bound to perform all the articles of the treaty. He had miscarried so in the siege of Dublin, that it very much lessened the opinion of his military conduct. Yet his constant attendance on his master, his easiness to him, and his great suffering for him, raised him to be lord-steward of the household, and lord-lieutenant of Ireland.
He was firm to the protestant religion, and so far firm to the laws, that he always gave good advices; but when bad ones were followed, he was not for complaining too much of them. An online calendar of the papers from the Restoration period is available. The duke of Ormond was an excellent soldier, an accomplished courtier, and an able statesman; and, what was a better character than all these, he was the good, the humane, and benevolent man.
He did and suffered much in the cause of Charles I. Cromwell offered to restore his immense estate to him; but he was a man of too nice honour to accept of that offer from one who, he thought, had no right to make it. He was a warm friend, and a placable enemy; and was never known to have any enemies himself, but those who were offended at his virtues. He had an admirable talent at speaking; and never failed to convince, as he spoke only on the side of truth and equity.
His military exploits in Ireland in the late reign, and his wise government of that kingdom in the present, the hardships he suffered in bis exile, and his active loyalty to his banished sovereign, are amply recorded in his "Life" by Mr.