A scholium to line of Aristophanes ' The Birds mentions a cult "to Pandora, the earth, because she bestows all things necessary for life".
Jeffrey M. Hurwit has interpreted her presence there as an "anti-Athena. Meanwhile, Pausanias i. Images of Pandora began to appear on Greek pottery as early as the 5th century BCE, although identification of the scene represented is sometimes ambiguous. An independent tradition that does not square with any of the Classical literary sources is in the visual repertory of Attic red-figure vase-painters, which sometimes supplements, sometimes ignores, the written testimony; in these representations the upper part of Pandora is visible rising from the earth, "a chthonic goddess like Gaia herself.
In some cases the figure of Pandora emerging from the earth is surrounded by figures carrying hammers in what has been suggested as a scene from a satyr play by Sophocles , Pandora, or The Hammerers , of which only fragments remain.
In a late Pre-Raphaelite painting by John D. But in the actual painting which followed much later, a subordinated Pandora is surrounded by gift-bearing gods and Minerva stands near her, demonstrating the feminine arts proper to her passive role. The shift is back to the culture of blame whenever she steps outside it. In the individual representations of Pandora that were to follow, her idealisation is as a dangerous type of beauty, generally naked or semi-naked. She is only differentiated from other paintings or statues of such females by being given the attribute of a jar or, increasingly in the 19th-century, a straight-sided box.
As well as the many European paintings of her from this period, there are examples in sculptures by Henri-Joseph Ruxthiel ,  John Gibson ,  Pierre Loison , see above and Chauncy Bradley Ives There is an additional reason why Pandora should appear nude, in that it was a theological commonplace going back to the early Church Fathers that the Classical myth of Pandora made her a type of Eve.
It has been argued that it was as a result of the Hellenisation of Western Asia that the misogyny in Hesiod's account of Pandora began openly to influence both Jewish and then Christian interpretations of scripture. Bishop Jean Olivier's long Latin poem Pandora drew on the Classical account as well as the Biblical to demonstrate that woman is the means of drawing men to sin. Originally appearing in and republished thereafter, it was soon followed by two separate French translations in and The equation of the two also occurs in the allegorical painting by Jean Cousin the Elder , Eva Prima Pandora Eve the first Pandora , in which a naked woman reclines in a grotto.
Her right elbow rests on a skull, indicating the bringing of death, and she holds an apple branch in that hand — both attributes of Eve. Her left arm is wreathed by a snake another reference to the temptation of Eve and that hand rests on an unstopped jar, Pandora's attribute. Above hangs the sign from which the painting gains its name and beneath it is a closed jar, perhaps the counterpart of the other in Olympus, containing blessings.
In Juan de Horozco's Spanish emblem book , Emblemas morales , a motive is given for Pandora's action. Early dramatic treatments of the story of Pandora are works of musical theatre. Prometheus moulds a clay statue of Minerva , the goddess of wisdom to whom he is devoted, and gives it life from a stolen sunbeam.
This initiates a debate among the gods whether a creation outside their own work is justified; his devotion is in the end rewarded with permission to marry his statue. There she encounters the first man, the prior creation of Prometheus, and warmly responds to his embrace.
One other musical work with much the same theme was Aumale de Corsenville's one-act verse melodrama Pandore , which had an overture and incidental music by Franz Ignaz Beck. However, his patron Minerva descends to announce that the gods have gifted Pandora with other qualities and that she will become the future model and mother of humanity. Over the course of the 19th century the story of Pandora was interpreted in radically different ways by four dramatic authors in four countries. In two of these she was presented as the bride of Epimetheus; in the two others she was the wife of Prometheus.
The earliest of these works was the lyrical dramatic fragment by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , written between It is in fact a philosophical transformation of Goethe's passion in old age for a teenaged girl. It begins with her creation, her refusal by Prometheus and acceptance by Epimetheus.
After she eventually gives in to temptation and opens it, she collapses in despair and a storm destroys the garden outside. When Epimetheus returns, she begs him to kill her but he accepts joint responsibility. She is pictured as sprawled over a carved wooden chest on which are embossed golden designs of the three fates who figure as a chorus in Longfellow's scene 3.
And he charged Hermes the guide, the Slayer of Argos, to put in her a shameless mind and a deceitful nature. Apostolos N. It means that Pandora clearly realised her position as a gift to Epimetheus that made her practically equal to a thing because she was not actually asked whether she wanted to be presented or not. Cassie marked it as to-read Feb 25, Although, it did irked me off again, when Kasey just tried to bury up her feelings by blindly falling back into Teal's arms.
Outside the palace, a high wind is bending the trees. But on the front of the chest, a medallion showing the serpent wound about the tree of knowledge recalls the old interpretation of Pandora as a type of Eve. When she opens it, Jupiter descends to curse her and Prometheus, but Hope emerges from the box and negotiates their pardon. It was based in part on the Prometheus Bound of Aeschylus but was rewritten so as to give the character of Pandore an equal part with his.
Madame Vestris in the burlesque Prometheus and Pandora , an print.
Jane Morris in the role, Dante Gabriel Rossetti , coloured chalks, The pattern during the 19th century had only repeated that of the nearly three millennia before it. The ancient myth of Pandora never settled into one accepted version, was never agreed to have a single interpretation. It was used as a vehicle to illustrate the prevailing ideologies or artistic fashions of the time and eventually became so worn a coinage that it grew confused with other, sometimes later, stories.
Best known in the end for a single metaphorical attribute, the box with which she was not even endowed until the 16th century, depictions of Pandora have been further confused with other holders of receptacles — with one of the trials of Psyche ,  with Sophonisba about to drink poison  or Artemisia with the ashes of her husband. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mythological figure. For other uses, see Pandora disambiguation.
Main article: Pandora's box. In Kershaw, Stephen ed. A concise dictionary of Classical Mythology. Maxwell-Hyslop translator. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Ltd. Verdenius, p.
According to Proclus, Prometheus had received the jar of ills from the satyrs and deposited it with Epimetheus , urging him not to accept Pandora. This may have been a familiar tale which Hes. West goes on to say this contributes to the "inconclusive Pandora legend". There is a vast number of modern explanations, of which I shall discuss only the most important ones. They may be divided into two classes according as they presume that the jar served 1 to keep elpis for man, or 2 to keep off elpis from man.
In the first case the jar is used as a pantry, in the second case it is used as a prison just as in Hom. E Furthermore, elpis may be regarded either a as a good, or b as an evil. In the first case it is to comfort man in his misery and a stimulus rousing his activity, in the second case it is the idle hope in which the lazy man indulges when he should be working honestly for his living cf.
The combination of these alternatives results in four possibilities which we shall now briefly consider. A large pithos is sunk deep into the ground.
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It has served as a grave. The vase-painting in fig. It is more general in content; it is in fact simply a representation of ideas familiar to every Greek, that the pithos was a grave-jar, that from such grave-jars souls escaped and to them necessarily returned, and that Hermes was Psychopompos , Evoker and Revoker of souls. The vase-painting is in fact only another form of the scene so often represented on Athenian white lekythoi, in which the souls flutter round the grave-stele.
The grave-jar is but the earlier form of sepulture; the little winged figures, the Keres, are identical in both classes of vase-painting. Sir James George Frazer. Archived from the original on January 8, Hesiod's pithos refers to a large storage jar, often half-buried in the ground, used for wine, oil or grain. Historic interpretations of the Pandora figure are rich enough to have offered Dora and Erwin Panofsky scope for monographic treatment.
click here West writes that the story of Pandora and her jar is from a pre-Hesiodic myth, and that this explains the confusion and problems with Hesiod's version and its inconclusiveness. He also writes that it may have been that Epimetheus and Pandora and their roles were transposed in the pre-Hesiodic myths, a "mythic inversion". He remarks that there is a curious correlation between Pandora being made out of earth in Hesiod's story, to what is in the Bibliotheca that Prometheus created man from water and earth. The meaning of Pandora's name, according to the myth provided in Works and Days , is "all-gifted".
However, according to others Pandora more properly means "all-giving".
An alternative name for Pandora attested on a white-ground kylix ca. Written above this figure a convention in Greek vase painting is the name Anesidora. More commonly, however, the epithet anesidora is applied to Gaea or Demeter. In view of such evidence, William E. Phipps has pointed out, "Classics scholars suggest that Hesiod reversed the meaning of the name of an earth goddess called Pandora all-giving or Anesidora one-who-sends-up-gifts.
Vase paintings and literary texts give evidence of Pandora as a mother earth figure who was worshipped by some Greeks. The main English commentary on Works and Days states that Hesiod shows no awareness [of this]. Jane Ellen Harrison  also turned to the repertory of vase-painters to shed light on aspects of myth that were left unaddressed or disguised in literature. On a fifth-century amphora in the Ashmolean Museum her fig.
A winged ker with a fillet hovers overhead: "Pandora rises from the earth; she is the Earth, giver of all gifts," Harrison observes. Over time this "all-giving" goddess somehow devolved into an "all-gifted" mortal woman. Smith,  however, noted that in Hesiod's account Athena and the Seasons brought wreaths of grass and spring flowers to Pandora, indicating that Hesiod was conscious of Pandora's original "all-giving" function.
For Harrison, therefore, Hesiod's story provides "evidence of a shift from matriarchy to patriarchy in Greek culture. As the life-bringing goddess Pandora is eclipsed, the death-bringing human Pandora arises.