Nefertiti was known to be an active Egyptian woman in society, as well as her children. She based most of Egypt's economy on commerce. Though not many women have acted as rulers in Egyptian society, they have been considered to be equal among men in status as well as legal opportunities. Women were shown to be allowed the opportunity to take part in the economy, such as their role as merchants, as it happened later in the Roman Empire , specially among the lower classes. Women had also taken part in religious activities, such as those who were priestesses.
In the Sixth Dynasty Nebet became a Vizier and thus the first woman in History to fulfill such an office. Women could also own property, divorce their husbands, live alone and occupy main positions, mostly religious, in similarity with Assyrian women.
Only the children from the Great Royal Wife could expect to succeed to the throne, and if there were no son but daughters by her, then a son by another wife or concubine could only get the throne by marrying the heir daughter, and whoever did so would become the new King. The further Nubian Queens were able to maintain this status. Politically, they often managed to become Interregnum queens.
I am surprised why no EB team member has not intervened since a very casual remark by a member on this subject could easily end up hurting and humiliating lots of readers. Second, are there differences between the two countries regarding the way men and women try to obtain divorce? Watch this Topic. By VickyZozo. He has never raised a hand to me or so much as shoved me or done anything physically violating. The number of divorce forms issued in December reached 14,, compared to 13, during the same month of Egyptian diplomat: the right to water is fundamental human right Sat, Sep.
In the Ptolemaic Dynasty this rise to power was sublimated with the establishment of a coregency system, in which Queens had the same position as Kings and were even powerful enough to obtain in dispute that coregency for themselves. Circa the s, twice the percentage of women in Alexandria knew how to read compared to the same percentage in Cairo. To limit women's contact with men as tradition, practices such as veiling and gender segregation at schools, work, and recreation have become common.
Furthermore, lower-class families, especially in Upper-Egypt, have tended to withdraw females from school as they reached puberty to minimize their interaction with males. Lower-class men frequently preferred marriage to women who had been secluded rather than to those who had worked or attended secondary school. The rule of Gamal Abdul Nasser was characterized by his policy of stridently advocating women's rights through welfare-state policies, labeled as state feminism. Women were guaranteed the right to vote and equality of opportunity was explicitly stated in the Egyptian constitution, forbidding gender-based discrimination.
Labor laws were changed to ensure women's standing in the work force and maternity leave was legally protected. At the same time, the state repressed independent feminist organizations, leaving a dearth of female political representation. The economic liberalization plan of the Sadat regime resulted in the collapse of this system and the resurgence of Islamist-influenced policy.
While the Nasserist years allowed a wide range of study for women, Sadat's policies narrowed the opportunities available to women. Unemployment for women changed from 5. In place of policies to economically support women during pregnancy, women were encouraged to leave work entirely or work part-time. The Mubarak years were marked by further erosion of the role of women. Preserved parliamentary seats for women and the personal status law were repealed in , a new watered-down law taking its place that allowed less power for women in cases of divorce.
The migration of a large number of Egyptians, mostly men, has also affected the status of Egyptian women. Female genital mutilation was criminalized in Egypt in The doctor responsible for the procedure became the first doctor in Egypt to be tried for committing female genital mutilation. On November 20, he was found not guilty. Virginity tests done by the military on detainees were banned in Egypt on 27 December The literacy rate of women aged 15 and over is Families are usually of medium size, with the total fertility rate TFR being 3. In a poll of gender experts, Egypt ranked worst for women's rights out of all the Arab states.
The German author has, herself, been married to an Egyptian for more than forty years. Today she lives in Alexandria, Egypt, for most of the year. Her encounters . Answer 1 of 9: HI, im european married officially to egyptian for 3 years, we have My husband is Egyptian and I'm British with Egyptian parents and we are so.
Human Rights Watch reported 91 sexual assaults in four days from 30 June during the Tahrir Square protests, as well as 19 cases of mob sexual assaults in January. Honor killings take place in Egypt relatively frequently, due to reasons such as a woman meeting an unrelated man, even if this is only an allegation; or adultery real or suspected. Female genital mutilation FGM is widespread in Egypt, with a majority of women having undergone some version of the procedure,  although the practice is less common among the youth.
Its main purpose is to preserve chastity, though its social function is very complicated. FGM was banned in , but enforcement of the law was weak. Women continued to face inadequate protection from sexual and gender-based violence, as well as gender discrimination in law and practice, particularly under personal status laws regulating divorce.
A year-old girl died on 29 May, reportedly from haemorrhaging, following female genital mutilation FGM at a private hospital in Suez Governorate. Following an individuals death, Two-thirds of their estate is distributed according to compulsory inheritance rules, wherein women receive half the inheritance that men do. A woman's testimony in Egyptian courts is worth half of a man's.
A constitutional referendum was held in Egypt in A constituent assembly was elected which drafted the new constitution. Of the members of the assembly, only 7 were women. In the Egyptian parliamentary election women won 75 of the seats up for election. A further 14 women and 14 men were appointed by president Sisi. With a percentage of Marriage was considered a very important part in ancient Egyptian society.
Marriage was an almost completely private affair, and as a result, not many records of marriage were kept. Egyptian women who were married were highly acknowledged. It was common for females to marry after the age of menstruation , such as age They were usually considered married after they had left the protection of their father's house.
It had also been acknowledged that though the woman became under her spouse's care, her husband did not become her legal guardian and the woman remained independent while controlling her own assets. For the non-royal women in ancient Egypt, the title of wife also came with the title "Mistress of the House".
The role as a wife included taking care of the household. Egypt's laws pertaining to marriage and divorce have changed over the years, however they have generally favored the social position of men, although reform continues. Egypt retained the inclusion of Islamic law in dealings of family law , following on from its judicial and administrative independence from the Ottoman Empire in A Muslim man could divorce his wife with ease by saying "I divorce thee" on three separate occasions in the presence of witnesses. However, for example in the more strict Hanafi school of family law, a woman could only divorce from her husband in the case of his impotence or by choosing the 'option of puberty'.
The first reforms that changed this state of affairs came in the s with Law No. These reforms included the following specifics regarding legitimate grounds for a woman requesting a divorce:. These reforms were possible through the Maliki school of thought, which was more liberal. As suggested by Rifa'a el-Tahtawi , a more progressive attitude towards the rights of women could be achieved whilst remaining within an Islamic framework, by looking to another of the Sunni schools.
In further reforms were made and these even began to include debates about whether or not Shariah law should be included in the new constitution.
Aisha Ratib became Minister of Social Affairs and in November the following revisions were suggested:. The government amended the laws relating to personal status in The amendments, which became known as the "women's rights law," were in the form of a presidential decree and subsequently approved by the People's Assembly. The leading orthodox Islamic clergy endorsed these amendments, but Islamist groups opposed them as state infringements of religious precepts and campaigned for their repeal.
The amendments stated that polygamy was legally harmful to a first wife and entitled her to sue for divorce within a year after learning of her husband's second marriage. The amendments also entitled the first wife to compensation. A husband retained the right to divorce his wife without recourse to the courts, but he was required to file for his divorce before witnesses at a registrar's office and officially and immediately to inform his wife.
The divorced wife was entitled to alimony equivalent to one year's maintenance in addition to compensation equivalent to two years' maintenance; a court could increase these amounts under extenuating circumstances such as the dissolution of a long marriage. The divorced wife automatically retained custody of sons under the age of ten and daughters under twelve; courts could extend the mother's custody of minors until their eighteenth birthdays.
In Egyptian authorities ruled that the amendments of were unconstitutional because they had been enacted through a presidential decree while the People's Assembly was not in session. A new law reversed many of the rights accorded to women in Although polygamy is permissible in Islam, the practice remains controversial for Muslims around the world, with many accusing men of abusing the religious ruling for personal desires.
But the Quran clearly states that a man can only marry more than one woman if he treats her and all his other wives equally, imposing restrictions and rules to a practice that is widely performed today. But the verse then goes on to confirm "You will never be able to be equal between wives, even if you should strive to do so".